Saturday, 22 October 2011

Aims Goals and objectives and Purposes of education.

Saturday, 22 October 2011

Aims Goals and objectives and Purposes of education

Educational theorists usually think of aims, goals and objectives, descending order of generality, as statements of educational purposes. Collapsed into one nebulous clump called standards.  Aims are too often scarified for specific learning objectives.  Although, objectives cannot be measured directly, their continued discussion is essential.  Careful considernation of aims should guide our choice of curriculum and selection and evaluating of goals and objectives.   I suggest a significant role for them in an era of accountability.  The particular names we use for the categories are not so important.   What matters is the underlying structure the nature of the categories themselves and how they are related.  Aims and goals are often treated as unimportant in favor of objectives because measurement.  I agree that we need to access not only specific student outcomes but also what we as educators are doing, what we offer and why.  Thus, aims can be used to reflect upon and evaluate our goals.  Are goals compatible with our stated aims?  Similarly, goals can be used to evaluate objectives.   It is likely that meeting the suggested objectives for student learning will satisfy our stated goals.  The detailed description of aims, goal and objectives is presented here under:-

Aims:  Aims are the general statements that proved direction to the education actions.  Consider two aims almost universally posited by educators in the democratic societies: to prepare the students for democratic life and prepare citizens who are literate.  Notice that these aims reflect interest in the welfare of both the individual students and the society to which schools are responsible.   We must notice that aims are not easily measured.  How do we know when students are prepared for democratic life?  It may seem easier at first to judge if citizens are literate but even this aim is vague and lack specificity.  Some policy makers today insist that there is no need to discuss aims because we already know what we are trying to accomplish in schooling.  However, even if we believe that aims are fixed and universal,   we would still need to discuss them in the process of constructing goals and objectives.  Following are the characteristics of aim of education.

  • Aim is not directly measurable.
  • They reflect the values of the society served by the schools
  • They are designed to establish and maintain the ideals of the society.
  • They are broadly stated educational purposes at the highest level of generality.
  • Aims remind us of our ideal and direct the construction of goals and objectives.
  • The perennials argue that aims of education are fixed universally for the times.
  • Aims guide us in making educational choices.

Goals: Goals are statements of educational intention which are established to fill out an aim.  The educators construct goals to promote the aim.   They are usually established for grade, levels or particular subject matters. With respect to the literacy aim, for example, mathematics Departments may construct a goal of mathematical literacy and a school may decide that a suitable sub goal for fifth grade larger goal of mathematically literacy and the aim of general literacy.  It is still somewhat vague.  What do we mean by understand.  The entire teacher should consider what they can do to advance to the general aims of schools.   A math teacher should be concerned with the general literacy as well as methodical literacy. Similarly they should be concerned with educating their students for democratic citizenship.  How can a math range of human talents and interests?   Many highly intelligent and creative people have difficulty with mathematics.  When a math teacher expresses his/her appreciation of mathematical talents and his gratitude for the variety of work on which our society depends.  The students are likely to increase their own appreciation for workers and such appreciation is fundamental to democracy.  Following are the salient characteristics of the educational goals.

  • Goals are narrower and often specific.
  • Usually the translation form aims to goals is made in the context of subject matter disciplines in mathematics, physics, language and other subjects.
  • Goal may encompass an entire programmed, subject area and multiple grade levels.
  • There may be many goals to accomplish an aim.

Objectives: Objectives refer to the specific statements of educational intention which describe specific outcomes.   To me the objectives are constructed to define the meaning of understand what do we expect by way student outcomes.  At this state, objectives are written in terms of measurable student outcomes.  There is still he need to say what teachers will do to accomplish the objectives.  Some method chosen may advance the larger goal and some may not.  The teacher of today is encouraged to have learning objective for every lesion.  They are rarely asked to relate their objectives to goals and aims.  Objectives frequently take the forms like:   On a paper and pencil test, students will add fractions with different denominators up to 12, with at least 80% accuracy; by the end of the semester, the learner should be able to read a level 4 book at the 110 w.p.m (word per mints)   The teacher should think first how the objectives fit with larger goals and objectives.  They should do a task analysis and identify the skills required to achieve.  They should do a task analysis and identify the skills required to achieve the objectives.   One relevant larger aim is to achieve literacy.  In this case, mathematical literacy is the goal and understanding of fraction is the objective.   The job of a teacher is not only to teach children how to add fraction but also to do it in such a way that the larger goal and aim are advanced.  Following are the salient characteristics of educational objectives.

            The objectives are evaluated in the light of accepted aims.
            They describe specific student outcomes.
            They are measurable, realistic and time constrained.
            Objectives are simply drawn form a textbook or a list of standards


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