Friday, 25 November 2011

Human Cloning - Make a new human without any sexual reproduction

Friday, 25 November 2011 0
Human Cloning - Make a new human without any sexual reproduction

Saturday, 22 October 2011

Theories Of Educational Objectives

Saturday, 22 October 2011 0

Theories of selecting educational objectives
  The theories of selecting educational objectives refer to those schools of thoughts and thinking patterns which provide necessary guidelines for the formulation of objectives of education.   The objectives of education serve as a guide to the educative process.  Education cannot get its destination without these objectives.  These are the objectives of the educative process,  To me,  following are the significant theories of the selecting the objectives of education:-

Knowledge for knowledge sake theory
  Knowledge for knowledge sake theory refers to increase in information, According to this theory, the students are taught various academic subjects so as to enable them participate in academic discussions and debates.   The proponents of this theory are of the view that information bring about behavioral changes in the individuals.  Acquisition of information is the only aim of education.  The modern educationists do not agree to this theory.

Personal development theory
  Theory of personal development refers to the all round comprehensive personality development of the individuals.  According to the proponents of this theory,  the cognitive, emotional, social and spiritual development of the aspects of the personality of the individuals are the aims of life. The development of the these abilities allow the individual to lead a successful life in the society.

Skill Theory
  The skill theory refers to associate objectives of education with professional skills.  According to this theory, this is the responsibilities of education to equip the individuals with professional skills along with ideological and academic competence of the individuals.  These professional skill enable the individuals participate in the useful economic activities.   The skilled individuals of a country cause national development.  Due to the skill of these individuals a nation succeeds in the various fields of nation life.

Social Reconstruction Theory
 The social reconstruction theory means to used education as a tool for social welfare.   According to ths theory, the educative process is regarded as a social activity.   This is the responsibility of school prepare the students to meet new social challenges.  The school is a miniature society which prepares the students to play their real role in the society.

Objectives of Education

Objectives of education are the outline of the changes with expected by means of the educative process.

·        Aims of education refer to the national desires and individual needs which gives birth to any education system on earth.  So to say, aims are causes which cause for the emergence of a system of education.

·        Objectives of education refer to those individual and collective changes which take place through the process of education.

·        Objectives of education refer to those individual and collective emergences of a system of education

·        Objective of education refer to the national desires and individual needs which give birth to any education system of a nation.

·        Objective of education are the causes which bring about the emergence of a system of education.

·        The Objectives of education refer to the driving forces which attract a nation to develop a system of education….   There should be properly defined and declared principles, aims and objectives of education so that a clear destination of a system of education may be defined.  The significance and role of determining objectives of education in a system of education may be explained in the following points.

They decide the destination of education
  Objectives of education provide the guiding principles with which a clear course of action is decided for a system of education.  So to say the objectives of education decide the destination of education.

They keep the educative process moving
  Objectives of education provide the necessary motivation which is necessary to keep the process of education moving and producing the required individuals.  These objectives serve as a vital force for the teachers, students, educational administration in getting the academic excellence associated with educative process.

They help in evaluating the process of education
  Objectives of education aid in evaluating the process of education.  Every activity has a specific aim to achieve in the process of education.  In the educational setting,  it is generally believed that every activity should be evaluated so that one can know to what extent the objectives of an activity have been achieved.  This is called  the process of evaluation in the terminology of education.  The process of evaluation is meaningless of the objectives of education are not predetermined.

They help in the selection of Source:  Every activity requires specific source to carry out.  Specific activates are carried out for the acquisition of the objectives of education.  In the same fashion, specific sources are needed for the execution of specific activities.  The significance of the determination of the objectives of education cannot be ignored.  If the objectives of education are predetermined, the selection of sources required for the acquisition of the objectives of education becomes easy.

They help the teachers to select educational courses
  The educational objective decide the destination of education in this way, determination of the objectives of education enables a teacher to select the alternative course to reach the destination of education.  Objectives of education are the destination of the educative process.   If destination is predefined, there are many ways opened before the teacher to reach the destination.

They give birth to the process of curriculum development
  A strategy for the acquisition of educational objectives is designed following the determination of the objectives of education.  This planned strategy is called curriculum.   The process of curriculum development cannot take place without the predetermined objectives of education.   The objectives of education, rightly  decide what a society wishes to be its children;  what type of individuals are required by the society;  which activities suit to the  children of specific  age-group and which skills are necessary for the children belonging to the specific age group.  All these educational affairs can only be decided when the objectives of education are predefined.

They help in preparing the text books:  The preparation of text books is not possible without the pre-determined objectives of education.  The objectives guide the authors in selecting the appropriate content of the text books.  If the author is not aware of the objectives of education, he/she will not be in a position to decide the relevant content of the text book.  Tome, a good text book always follows the guiding principles of the objectives of education.

They help in selection of teaching methods
  Determination of education objectives enables a teacher to select appropriate teaching methods for the acquisition of objectives of education.  Without the clear determination of objectives of education appropriate methods of teaching cannot be selected for the transmission of the instructional content Selection of teaching methods for the acquisition of objectives of education is a concrete reality of the educative process.

They make the academic destination clear and explicit
  It is necessary for a teacher to have a clear knowledge of fictions of education.  Otherwise, all the academic activities will become meaningless when a teacher keeps in mind the objectives of education during instruction; he sees his destination very clearly.   A clear knowledge of the objectives of education guides the teacher in reaching the academic destination.
They allow the planners to make a comprehensive strategy
  Objectives of education mirror the aspirations of nation.  Education prepares an individual for future life Social values, traditions, skills and other excellences are transmitted to the next generations through the educative process.  Education is responsible for our social survival, bright nation future and all around personality development as well, in this respect, education is a sensitive activity and it cannot be left unnoticed.   It seems essential that objectives that objectives of education should be determined so that strategy for successful educative process may be planned.

The Importance of Aim of Education

            The importance of aims and objectives of education is recognized by all the education professionals and thinkers of education.  After reading this segment of the book, the students are hoped to:

  • Define the concept of objectives of education with all its associated details.
  • Throw light on the various functions and dimensions of education.
  • Express their own views regarding the general aims of education.
  • Critically differentiate among aims, goals and objectives.
  • Connect the objectives of education with pre-requisites of Curriculum.
Aim of Education
            Education is the most significant source of individual and collative change.  But the question arises what sort of this change should be.  This is the question which gives birth to the ‘ concept of objectives of education.’  The changes, outlines in terms of objectives of education, can occur only by the means of the educative process.  Education has deep concerns with society and society is composed of individuals.  The total structure of the whole society largely depends of the education of the members of society.. Education of the individuals is a very sensitive and responsible act which aims at making them acquainted with the moral principles, social values, political thoughts and the laws of economic well being.  All these varied information enable the individuals self aware and socially primarily concerned with the development of training of the members of society.  In the circumstances it seems necessary that we should determine the objectives of this activity so that the destination of this activity may be decided.  This very destination of the process of education is objectives of education.

Education for Man

              Human survival and strength lie in the existence of society.  This why, mankind unites itself in terms of a society.  Then another question arises how to maintain the survival of society and human consciousness.  The individual of the society carry out the process of education in response to that question.  This process of education turned into an organized system of education with the passage of time.   A system of education transmits the Societal excellences to the forthcoming generations and thereby ensures the continuity of the society.   The existence of society largely depends on education.  The objectives of education are, in fact, the steps taken for maintaining the existence of a society.  If there is no society, there would be no concept of the educative process.  Education is a source of preparation of the individuals required by the society.  The educative determined objectives.   These objectives motivate the process of education.  A system of education cannot survive without the pre-determined objectives of education.  A system of education comes into being for the fulfillment of the individual and collective aspirations.   This system of education is the chief source of the fulfillment of the objectives of education.

Purposes of education AGO Aims

To prepare the individual for democratic Life
To prepare citizens who are literacy

To develop  reading, writing, listening, and speaking, ability of the national language in the individuals
To develop the computer literacy in the individuals
To promote  mathematical literacy in the individuals

To be able to learn five poems o the fifth grade English book by the end of semester
To be able to write summary of each chapter consisting of 100 words by the end of the semester
To be able to read fifth  grade English  book at 90 w.p.m by the end of the semester.

Aims Goals and objectives and Purposes of education.

Aims Goals and objectives and Purposes of education

Educational theorists usually think of aims, goals and objectives, descending order of generality, as statements of educational purposes. Collapsed into one nebulous clump called standards.  Aims are too often scarified for specific learning objectives.  Although, objectives cannot be measured directly, their continued discussion is essential.  Careful considernation of aims should guide our choice of curriculum and selection and evaluating of goals and objectives.   I suggest a significant role for them in an era of accountability.  The particular names we use for the categories are not so important.   What matters is the underlying structure the nature of the categories themselves and how they are related.  Aims and goals are often treated as unimportant in favor of objectives because measurement.  I agree that we need to access not only specific student outcomes but also what we as educators are doing, what we offer and why.  Thus, aims can be used to reflect upon and evaluate our goals.  Are goals compatible with our stated aims?  Similarly, goals can be used to evaluate objectives.   It is likely that meeting the suggested objectives for student learning will satisfy our stated goals.  The detailed description of aims, goal and objectives is presented here under:-

Aims:  Aims are the general statements that proved direction to the education actions.  Consider two aims almost universally posited by educators in the democratic societies: to prepare the students for democratic life and prepare citizens who are literate.  Notice that these aims reflect interest in the welfare of both the individual students and the society to which schools are responsible.   We must notice that aims are not easily measured.  How do we know when students are prepared for democratic life?  It may seem easier at first to judge if citizens are literate but even this aim is vague and lack specificity.  Some policy makers today insist that there is no need to discuss aims because we already know what we are trying to accomplish in schooling.  However, even if we believe that aims are fixed and universal,   we would still need to discuss them in the process of constructing goals and objectives.  Following are the characteristics of aim of education.

  • Aim is not directly measurable.
  • They reflect the values of the society served by the schools
  • They are designed to establish and maintain the ideals of the society.
  • They are broadly stated educational purposes at the highest level of generality.
  • Aims remind us of our ideal and direct the construction of goals and objectives.
  • The perennials argue that aims of education are fixed universally for the times.
  • Aims guide us in making educational choices.

Goals: Goals are statements of educational intention which are established to fill out an aim.  The educators construct goals to promote the aim.   They are usually established for grade, levels or particular subject matters. With respect to the literacy aim, for example, mathematics Departments may construct a goal of mathematical literacy and a school may decide that a suitable sub goal for fifth grade larger goal of mathematically literacy and the aim of general literacy.  It is still somewhat vague.  What do we mean by understand.  The entire teacher should consider what they can do to advance to the general aims of schools.   A math teacher should be concerned with the general literacy as well as methodical literacy. Similarly they should be concerned with educating their students for democratic citizenship.  How can a math range of human talents and interests?   Many highly intelligent and creative people have difficulty with mathematics.  When a math teacher expresses his/her appreciation of mathematical talents and his gratitude for the variety of work on which our society depends.  The students are likely to increase their own appreciation for workers and such appreciation is fundamental to democracy.  Following are the salient characteristics of the educational goals.

  • Goals are narrower and often specific.
  • Usually the translation form aims to goals is made in the context of subject matter disciplines in mathematics, physics, language and other subjects.
  • Goal may encompass an entire programmed, subject area and multiple grade levels.
  • There may be many goals to accomplish an aim.

Objectives: Objectives refer to the specific statements of educational intention which describe specific outcomes.   To me the objectives are constructed to define the meaning of understand what do we expect by way student outcomes.  At this state, objectives are written in terms of measurable student outcomes.  There is still he need to say what teachers will do to accomplish the objectives.  Some method chosen may advance the larger goal and some may not.  The teacher of today is encouraged to have learning objective for every lesion.  They are rarely asked to relate their objectives to goals and aims.  Objectives frequently take the forms like:   On a paper and pencil test, students will add fractions with different denominators up to 12, with at least 80% accuracy; by the end of the semester, the learner should be able to read a level 4 book at the 110 w.p.m (word per mints)   The teacher should think first how the objectives fit with larger goals and objectives.  They should do a task analysis and identify the skills required to achieve.  They should do a task analysis and identify the skills required to achieve the objectives.   One relevant larger aim is to achieve literacy.  In this case, mathematical literacy is the goal and understanding of fraction is the objective.   The job of a teacher is not only to teach children how to add fraction but also to do it in such a way that the larger goal and aim are advanced.  Following are the salient characteristics of educational objectives.

            The objectives are evaluated in the light of accepted aims.
            They describe specific student outcomes.
            They are measurable, realistic and time constrained.
            Objectives are simply drawn form a textbook or a list of standards

Aims Of Educations. Design by Pocket